For the newest papers, see

Preprints/under review

  1. Byrne, E.M. Gilbert, R. A., Kievit, R. A. & Joni Holmes (in revision). Backward recall and n-back measures of working memory: A large-scale latent variable analysis.
  2. Orben, A., Lucas, R. E., Fuhrmann, D., & Kievit, R. (2020). Trajectories of adolescent life satisfaction.
  3. Nweze, T., Orben, A., Van Harmelen, A. L., Fuhrmann, D., & Kievit, R. (2020). It doesn’t end there: Mental health difficulties across ages 3-14 mediate the long-term association between early-life adversity and poorer cognitive functioning.
  4. Fuhrmann, D., Van Harmelen, A. L., & Kievit, R. (2020). Wellbeing and cognition are coupled during development: A preregistered longitudinal study of 1137 children and adolescents.
  5. Fjell, A., Sorensen, O., Amlien, I. K., Bartres-Faz, D., Brandmaier, A., Macia, D., … Kievit, R. A.,, …& Ebmeier, K. (2020). Self-reported sleep problems are related to cortical thinning in aging but not memory decline and amyloid-β accumulation-results from the Lifebrain consortium. bioRxiv.
  6. Van Harmelen, A. L., Blakemore, S. J., Goodyer, I., & Kievit, R. A. (in revision). The interplay between adolescent friendships and resilience following childhood adversity.
  7. Hofman, A. D., Kievit, R. A., Stevenson, C. E. , Molenaar, D., Visser, I., & van der Maas, H. L. J. (In revision). The dynamics of the development of mathematics skills: A comparison of theories of developing intelligence. Developmental Science, Preprint
  8. Hooven, C. K., Wai, J., Kievit, R. A., Ellison, P. T. Kosslyn, S. M., & Chabris, C. F. (in revision). The Sex Difference in Mental Rotation Test Scores May Not Reflect a Difference in Mental Rotation Ability. Scientific Reports. Preprint
  9. Reiter, A. M., Moutoussis, M., Vanes, L., Kievit, R. A., Bullmore, E. T., Goodyer, I. M., … & Dolan, R. J. (in revision). Taste uncertainty explains developmental effects on susceptibility to peer influence in adolescence.            


  1. Kievit, R. A. (In press). Sensitive periods in cognitive development: A mutualistic perspective. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences.
  2. Rommelse, N., Luman, M., & Kievit, R. A. (2020). Slow processing speed: a cross-disorder phenomenon with significant clinical value, and in need of further methodological scrutiny. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry volume 29, 1325–1327.
  3. Van Kesteren, E. J., & Kievit, R. A. (2020). Exploratory Factor Analysis with Structured Residuals for Brain Imaging Data. Network Neuroscience
  4. Fuhrmann, D., Simpson-Kent, I. L., Bathelt, J., & Kievit, R. A. (2020). The neurocognitive architecture of fluid ability in children and adolescents. Cerebral Cortex.
  5. Henson, R. N., Suri, S., Knights, E., Rowe, J. B., Kievit, R. A., Lyall, D. M., … & Fisher, S. E. (2020). Effect of apolipoprotein E polymorphism on cognition and brain in the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience cohort. Brain and Neuroscience Advances, 4, 2398212820961704.
  6. Springer, A., Monsch, A. U., Dutilh, G., Coslovsky, M., Kievit, R. A., Bonati, L. H., … & Fischer, U. (2020). A factor score reflecting cognitive functioning in patients from the Swiss Atrial Fibrillation Cohort Study (Swiss-AF). PloS one, 15(10), e0240167.
  7. Holmes, J., Guy, J., Bryant, A., Kievit, R. A., Gathercole, S. E., & CALM Team. (2020). Cognitive dimensions of learning in children with problems in attention, learning and memory. Journal of Educational Psychology. Preprint:
  8. Sørensen, Ø., Brandmaier, A. M., Bros, D. M., Ebmeier, K., Ghisletta, P., Kievit, R. A., … & Fjell, A. (2020). Meta-Analysis of Generalized Additive Models in Neuroimaging Studies. NeuroImage arXiv preprint arXiv:2002.02627.
  9. Borsboom, D., van der Maas, H., Dalege, J., Kievit, R. A., & Haig, B. (2020). Theory Construction Methodology: A practical framework for theory formation in psychology. Perspectives on Psychologica Science.
  10. Vaghi, M.M. Moutoussis, M., Vasa, F., Kievit, R. A. Hauser, T. U., Vertes, P. Shahar, N.,  Romero-Garcia, R. Kitzbichler M., Bullmore, E. T., NSPN Consortium & Dolan, R. J. (2020). Compulsivity is linked to reduced adolescent development of goal-directed control and fronto-striatal functional connectivity.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  11. Liu K. Y., Kievit, R.A., Tsvetanov, K. A., Betts, M. J., Düzel, E., Rowe, J. B., Cam-CAN, Howard, R. & Hämmerer, D. (2020). Noradrenergic-dependent functions are associated with age-related differences in locus coeruleus signal intensity. Nature Communications.
  12. Malpetti, M., Kievit, R. A., Passamonti, L., Jones, P. S., Tsvetanov, K. A., Rittman, T., … & Hong, Y. T. (2020). Microglial activation and tau burden predict cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s Disease. Brain, 19011189.
  13. Kievit, R. A., Simpson-Kent, I. L., Fuhrmann, D. (2020). Why Your Mind Is Like a Shark: Testing the Idea of Mutualism.Frontiers for Young Minds. Age, 8(14), 14.
  14. Borgeest, G. S., Henson, R., Shafto, M., Samu, D., & Kievit, R. A. (2020). Greater lifestyle engagement is associated with healthy cognitive ageing. PLoS One
  15. Simpson-Kent, I. L., Fuhrmann, D., Bathelt, J., Achterberg, J., Borgeest, G. S., Kievit, R. A., & CALM Team. (2020). Neurocognitive reorganization between crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence and white matter microstructure in two age-heterogeneous developmental cohorts. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 41, 100743.
  16. Davies, S. E., Neufeld, S. A., van Sprang, E., Schweren, L., Kievit, R. A., Fonagy, P., … & Target, M. (2020). Trajectories of depression symptom change during and following treatment in adolescents with unipolar major depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
  17. Ioannidis, K., Askelund, A. D., Kievit, R. A., & Van Harmelen, A. L. (2020). The complex neurobiology of resilient functioning after child maltreatment. BMC Medicine
  18. Peng, P., & Kievit, R. A. (2020). The Development of Academic Achievement and Cognitive Abilities: A Mutualistic Perspective. Child Development Perspectives.


  1. Fjell, A. M., Sørensen, Ø., Amlien, I. K., [], Kievit, R. A., [ ]& Walhovd, K. (2019). Self-reported sleep relates to hippocampal atrophy across the adult lifespan: Results from the Lifebrain consortium. Sleep
  2. Schweizer, S., Leung, J. T., Kievit, R. A., Speekenbrink, M., Tender, W. R., Hampshire, A., & Blakemore, S. J. (2018). Protocol for an App-Based Affective Control Training for Adolescents.
  3. Shahar, N. Moran, R. Hauser, T. U., Kievit, R. A., McNamee, D., Mouttousis, M. NSPN consortium & Dolan, R. J. (2019) Credit-assignment to state-independent task representations and its relationship with model-based decision-making. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  4. Kievit, R. A., Hofman, A. D., & Nation, K. (2019). Mutualistic Coupling Between Vocabulary and Reasoning in Young Children: A Replication and Extension of the Study by Kievit et al. (2017). Psychological Science, 0956797619841265.
  5. Eshaghi, A., Kievit, R. A., Prados, F., Sudre, C. H., Nicholas, J., Cardoso, M. J., … & Thompson, A. J. (2019). Applying causal models to explore the mechanism of action of simvastatin in progressive multiple sclerosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201818978
  6. Allen, M., Poggiali, D., Whitaker, K., Marshall, T. R., & Kievit, R. A. (2019). Raincloud plots: a multi-platform tool for robust data visualization. Wellcome Open Research, 6, e27137v1.
  7. Jacobucci, R., Brandmaier, A. M., & Kievit, R. A. (2019). A Practical Guide to Variable Selection in Structural Equation Modeling by Using Regularized Multiple-Indicators, Multiple-Causes Models. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 2(1), 55-76.Preprint. Data and code. R package
  8. Fuhrmann, D., Nesbitt, D., Shafto, M., Rowe, J. B., Gadie, A., Cam-CAN & Kievit, R.A. (2019). Strong and specific associations between cardiovascular risk factors and white matter micro-and macrostructure in healthy aging. Neurobiology of aging, 74, 46-55.
  9. Carpenter, J., Sherman, M. T., Kievit, R. A., Seth, A. K., Lau, H., & Fleming, S. M. (2019). Domain-general enhancements of metacognitive ability through adaptive training. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148(1), 51.
  10. Liu, K. Y., Acosta-Cabronero, J., Cardenas-Blanco, A., Loane, C., Berry, A. J., Betts, M. J., Kievit, R. A. … & Hämmerer, D. (2019). In vivo visualization of age-related differences in the locus coeruleus. Neurobiology of aging, 74, 101-111.


8. De Mooij, Henson, Waldorp, Cam-CAN & Kievit, R. A. (2018). Age differentiation within grey matter, white matter and between memory and white matter in an adult lifespan cohort. Journal of Neuroscience, 1627-17. Preprint. Data portal

9.            Kievit, R. A., Fuhrmann, D., Borgeest, S., Simpson-Kent, I., & Henson, R. N. A. (2018) The neural determinants of age-related changes in fluid intelligence: a pre-registered, longitudinal analysis in N=185,317 UK Biobank individuals. Wellcome Open Research. Preregistration

10.          Kievit, R. A., Brandmaier, A., Ziegler, G., van Harmelen, A. L., de Mooij, S., Moutoussis, M., … & Lindenberger, U. (2018). Developmental cognitive neuroscience using Latent Change Score models: A tutorial and applications. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Preprint. Code

11.          Walhovd, K. B., Fjell, A. M., Westerhausen, R., Nyberg, L., Ebmeier, K. P., Lindenberger, U., Lifebrain, & Drevon, C. A. (2018). Healthy minds from 0–100 years: Optimising the use of European brain imaging cohorts (“Lifebrain”). European Psychiatry, 47, 76-87.


12.          Schweizer, S., Kievit, R. A., Emery, T., & Henson, R. N. (2017). Symptoms of Depression in a Large Healthy Population Cohort are related to Subjective Memory Complaints and Memory Performance in Negative Contexts. Psychological Medicine, 48(1):104-114. Data portal

13.          Kievit, R. A., Lindenberger, U. Goodyer, I.M., Jones, P. B., Fonagy, P., Bullmore, E. T., the NSPN Consortium & Dolan, R. J. (2017). Mutualistic coupling between vocabulary and reasoning supports cognitive development during late adolescence and early adulthood. Psychological Science, 28, 10, 1419-1431. Data and code.

14.          van Harmelen, A. L., Kievit, R. A., NSPN consortium, Jones, P. B.,  Bullmore, E. T., Dolan, R. J. Fonagy, P.  & Ian Goodyer (2017). Adolescent friendships predict later resilient functioning across psychosocial domains in a healthy community cohort. Psychological Medicine, 47, 13, 2312-2322. Data and code

15.          Kievit, R. A. (2017). More is different. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(8), s41562-017.

16.          Gadie, Shafto, Leng, Cam-CAN & Kievit, R. A. (2017). Age-related differences in self-reported sleep quality predict healthy ageing across multiple domains.  BMJ Open, 7: e014920. Data portal


17.          Henson,  R. N. A., Campbell, K. L., Davis, S. W., Taylor, J. R., Emery, T., Erzinclioglu , S. Cam-CAN, &. Kievit, R. A.. (2016). Multiple determinants of ageing memories. Scientific Reports 6, 32527. Data portal

18.          Wolpe, N., Ingram, J., Tsvetanov, K., Geerligs, L., Kievit, R. A., Henson, R. N. A., Wolpert, D., Cam-CAN, & Rowe, J. (2016). Ageing increases the reliance on sensorimotor predictions through changes in structure and functional connectivity of the pre-supplementary motor area. Nature Communications. Data portal

19.          Kievit, R. A., Davis, S. W., Griffiths, J. D., Correia, M. M., & Henson, R. N. (2016). A watershed model of individual differences in fluid intelligence. Neuropsychologia. Data portal

20.          Wagenmakers, E. J., Wetzels, R., Borsboom, D., Kievit, R., & van der Maas, H. L. (2015). A skeptical eye on psi. Extrasensory perception: Support, skepticism, and science, 1, 153-176.

21.          Gathercole, S. E.. Woolgar, F., Manly, T, Astle, D. E., Kievit, R. A. & Holmes, J.. Are working memory impairments a defining characteristic of children with attention, learning and memory problems? (2016). Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.

22.          Kan, K. J., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Kievit, R. A. (2016). Process Overlap Theory: Strengths, limitations, and challenges. Psychological Inquiry, 27:3, 220-228. Code

23.          van Harmelen, A. L.,. Kievit, R. A. & Goodyer, I. M. (2016). Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents. PloS one, 11(5),  e0153715. Data and code

24.          Kievit, R., Scholte, H. S., Waldorp, L. J., & Borsboom, D. (2016). Inter-and intra-individual differences in fluid reasoning show distinct cortical responses. Preprint


25.          Fried, E. I., & Kievit, R. A. (2015). The volumes of subcortical regions in depressed and healthy individuals are strikingly similar: a reinterpretation of the results by Schmaal et al. Molecular Psychiatry, 21, 724–725. Preprint Data and code.

26.          Ganis, G., & Kievit, R. A. (2015). A New Set of Three-Dimensional Shapes for Investigating Mental Rotation Processes: Validation Data and Stimulus Set. Journal of Open Psychology Data, 3(1), e3. Data and materials


27.          Kievit, R. A., Davis, S. W., Mitchell, D. J., Taylor, J. R., Duncan, J., Cam-CAN, & Henson, R. N. A. (2014). Distinct aspects of frontal lobe structure mediate age-related differences in fluid intelligence and multitasking. Nature Communications, 5, 5658. Data portal

28.          Charest, I.  Kievit, R. A., Schmitz, T. W., Deca, D., Kriegeskorte, N. (2014). Unique semantic space in the brain of each beholder predicts perceived similarity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (40) 14565-14570

29.          Kievit, A. J., Kuijer, P., Kievit, R. A., Sierevelt, I. N., Blankevoort, L., & Frings-Dresen, M. H. (2014). A Reliable, Valid and Responsive Questionnaire to Score the Impact of Knee Complaints on Work following Total Knee Arthroplasty: the WORQ. The Journal of Arthroplasty, 29, 6, 1169-1175

30.          Kievit, R. A. (2014). Turtles all the way down? Psychometric approaches to the reduction problem. [PhD thesis]


31.          Kriegeskorte, N. & Kievit, R. A. (2013). Representational geometry: integrating cognition, computation, and the brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 401-412.

32.          Kievit, R.A., Frankenhuis, W. & Borsboom, D. (2013). Simpson’s Paradox in Psychological Science: A Practical Guide. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 513, 1-14. Package

33.          Schmittmann, V. D., Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., Epskamp, S., Kievit, R.A. & Borsboom, D. (2013). Deconstructing the construct: A network perspective on psychological phenomena. New ideas in Psychology, 31, 43-53


34.          Bakker, M., Cramer, A. O. J., Matzke, D., Kievit, R.A. , Van Der Maas, H. L. J., Wagenmakers, E. J. & Borsboom, D. (2013) Dwelling on the Past. The European Journal of Personality, 27, 120-121.

35.          Kievit, R.A., Waldorp, L.J., Kan, K.J., & Wicherts, J. M. (2012). Causality: populations, individuals, and assumptions. The European Journal of Personality, 26, 400-401

36.          Kievit, R.A., van Rooijen, H., Wicherts, J.M., Kan, K.J., Waldorp, L.J., Scholte & Borsboom, D. (2012). Intelligence and the brain: A model-based approach. Cognitive Neuroscience, 3, 89-97.

37.          Wagenmakers, E. J., Wetzels, R. W., Borsboom, D., van der Maas, H. L. J. & Kievit, R.A. (2012). An Agenda for Purely Confirmatory Research. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 632-638.

38.          Wicherts, J., Kievit, R.A., Bakker, M. & Borsboom, D. (2012) Letting the daylight in: Reviewing the reviewers and other ways to maximize transparency in science. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 6, 1.

39.          Kosslyn, S.M., Kievit, R.A., Russell, A.G. & Shepard, J.M. (2012). PowerPoint Flaws and Failures: A Psychological Analysis. Frontiers in Educational Psychology, 3, 230.

40.          Kievit, R.A., Romeijn, J.W., Waldorp, L.J., Wicherts, J.M., Scholte, H.S. & Borsboom, D. (2011). Modeling Mind and Matter: Reductionism and Psychological Measurement in Cognitive Neuroscience Psychological Inquiry, 22, 139-157.

41.          Borsboom, D., Epskamp, S., Kievit, R.A., Cramer, A. O. J., & Schmittmann. (2011). Transdiagnostic Networks. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 610-614.

42.          Kievit, R.A., Romeijn, J.W., Waldorp, L.J., Wicherts, J.M., Scholte, H.S. & Borsboom, D. (2011) Mind the gap: A psychometric approach to the reduction problem. Psychological Inquiry, 22, 67-87.

43.          Harmelen, A. van, Elzinga, B. M., Kievit, R.A. & Spinhoven, P. (2011). Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2, 7336.

44.          Penke, L. Johnson, W., Kievit, R. A., Wicherts, J. M., Ploeger, A.& Borsboom, D. (2011) Evolutionary psychology and intelligence research cannot be integrated the way Kanazawa (2010) suggests. American Psychologist, 66, 916-917.

45.          Kan, K. J., Kievit, R.A., Dolan, C.V., & van der Maas, H.L.J. (2011). On the interpretation of the CHC Gc factor as Crystallized Intelligence. Intelligence, 39, 292-302.

46.          Kievit, R. A. & Geurts, H. M. (2011). Autism and perception of awareness in self and others: Two sides of the same coin or dissociated abilities. Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 119-120.

47.          Kievit, R.A. (2011). Bayesians caught smuggling priors into Rotterdam Harbour. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 313. 

48.          Kievit, R.A. (2011). Parapsychologie, nullhypothesetoetsing en peer review 2.0. De Psycholoog, 46, 10-16.

49.          van der Maas, H. L. J., Molenaar, D., Maris, G., Kievit, R.A. & Borsboom, D. (2011) Cognitive psychology meets psychometric theory: On the relation between process models for decision making and latent variable models for individual differences. Psychological Review, 2, 339-356.

Ganis, G., Rosenfeld, J.P., Meixner, J., Kievit, R.A. & Schendan, H. (2011). Lying in the Scanner: Covert Countermeasures Disrupt Deception Detection by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neuroimage, 55, 312- 319.

Verkuilen, J., Kievit, R.A. & Zand Scholten, A. (2011). Fuzzy Sets to Represent Concepts in Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences. In: Belohlavek, R. & Klir, G.J. (eds.) Concepts and Fuzzy Logic, (pp. 149-176). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Borst, G., Kievit, R.A., Thompson, W. L. & Kosslyn, S.M. (2011). Mental rotation is not easily cognitively penetrable. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23, 60-75.

Borsboom, D., Cramer, A. Kievit, R.A., Zand Scholten, A. & Franic, S. (2009) The End of Construct Validity. In: Lissitz, R.W. (Ed.). The concept of validity. pp. 135-170. Information Age Publishers.

Borsboom, D., Kievit, R.A., Cervone, D.P., & Hood, S.B. (2009). The two disciplines of scientific psychology, or: The disunity of psychology as a working hypothesis. In: Valsiner, J., Molenaar, P.C.M., Lyra, M.C.D.P., & Chaudhary, N. Developmental process methodology in the social and developmental sciences, pp (67-89). New York: Springer.